The role of stem cell therapy for Cardiac Disease

The idea of regenerative therapy with using patient’s own or others stem cells, as well as using specific growth factors, stimulating stem cells going out to the peripheral blood flow, has come into reality today.

There has been a long way from treating heart conditions by means of medical correction and surgical intervention to regenerative therapy using stem cells. Such therapy is called cellular cardiomyoplasty and is used to treat the following heart deseases:

The reason for this shift is that medicamental and surgical methods of treatment aim at preserving what is left, whereas stem-cells transplantation allows to create new stable healthy and normally functioning tissue areas in myocardium. Thus, the results are much better than those of classical treatment methods. Today the leading clinics of Europe, USA, Russia and Asia apply cardiomyoplasty to treat heart conditions.

What are stem sells?

Stem cells are a population of young undifferentiated cells, which are able to differentiate into all types of cells, thus, replacing and renewing the lost cells as a result of damages in all organs and tissues. Also, stem cells can reproduce for quite a long period, which other cells types can’t do.

There are several types of stem cells:

  • embryonic,

  • fetal,

  • umbilical cord blood stem-cells,

  • adult (or somatic) stem-cells.

Heart stem cell therapy principle

The principle of operation of stem-cells is represented by angiogenesis stimulation. It is the ability of the cells to endlessly regenerate themselves and transform into other cells types depending on their microenvironment. So, basically, it means that they should be delivered to the needed place in the body.

There are two main methods of heart stem cell therapy:

  • intramuscular injection, immediately into the heart muscle;

  • intracoronary injection of cells immediately into the heart vessels during a surgery.